A leader of the African National Congress (ANC) in the Transvaal in the 1950s. Born of coloured and Swazi parents in 1924 in the Hectorspruit district of the Eastern Transvaal, he graduated from St. Peter's Secondary School in Johannesburg and obtained a BAchelor of Arts (B.A.) degree and teacher's diploma from Fort Hare in 1948. He taught briefly in Pimville High School until his dismissal for participation in the 1952 Defiance Campaign. He then took up law at the University of the Witwatersrand but did not complete his degree. In 1953 he attended the World Youth Festival in Bucharest and also toured in Britain, Czechoslovakia, and Bulgaria. From 1955 to 1958 he taught at the independent Central Indian High School in Johannesburg. He served as ANC Transvaal Provincial secretary, and was co-opted onto the national executive committee in the mid-1950s.
From December 1956 until late 1958 he was one of the accused in the Treason Trial. Following his acquittal he left South Africa without a passport and went to Ghana, where he taught for some years at Accra University College, later making his home in London. He wrote the book 'Road to Ghana' (1960). He died in Nigeria in 1972.