NSDAP- Stands for Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei and was a national Socialist German Workers’ Party.[1]

Communist Party- The Communist party in Germany was a major political party between 1918-1933 which had a resistant underground movement in Nazi Germany.[2]

Reichstag Fire- This was an arson attack which occurred on the 27th of February, 1933, which burned the building in which the German parliament was housed.[3]

Decree- This was a an order which was passed by Von Hindenburg and it suspended all articles in the constitution that guaranteed peoples key freedoms and liberty.[4]

Centre Party- This was a lay Catholic Party in Germany.[5]

Sturmabteilung- Nazi Party’s paramilitary wing which aimed to make Germany a full socialistic state.[6]

Wehrmacht- unified armed forces of Nazi Germany opposed the Sturmabteilung’s stance.[7]

Schutzstaffel (SS)- This was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler who got rid of the Sturmabteilung.[8]

Führer- This is a political title which means leader in German and is associated with the Nazi dictator Adolf Hitler.[9]

Gestapo- This was the official secret state police of Nazi Germany.[10]

Positive eugenics- Refers to efforts which are directed and expanding desirable traits.[11]

Negative eugenics- refers to effort which are directed to eliminate through sterilisation, segregation or other means those who are perceived or deemed to be physically, mentally or morally ‘undesirable’.[12]

Nuremburg Laws- These were anti-Semitic and racist laws that were enacted in Germany by the Nazi Party.[13]

Annexed- The concept in international law in which one state forcibly acquires another states territory.[14]

Kristallnacht- An event where violent, state-mandated actions against Jewish shops, businesses and homes occurred in November 1938.[15]

Dissident priests- Catholic resistance to Nazi Germany who denounced Nazi policies.[16]

Holocaust- This was the genocide of European Jews during WWII.[17]

End Notes

[1] Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia. "Nazi Party." Encyclopedia Britannica, January 11, 2021. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Nazi-Party.

[2] Catherine Epstein, The Last Revolutionaries: German Communists and Their Century. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2003.

[5] Blackbourn, David. "The Political Alignment of the Centre Party in Wilhelmine Germany: A Study of the Party's Emergence in Nineteenth-Century Württemberg." The Historical Journal 18, no. 4 (1975): 821-850.

[6] Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia. "SA." Encyclopedia Britannica, November 11, 2020. https://www.britannica.com/topic/SA-Nazi-organization

[7] Taylor, Telford (1995). Sword and Swastika: Generals and Nazis in the Third Reich. New York: Barnes & Noble

[8] Ibid.,

[9] Bullock, A. , Bullock, . Baron , Knapp, . Wilfrid F. and Lukacs, . John. "Adolf Hitler." Encyclopedia Britannica, April 26, 2021. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Adolf-Hitler.

[10] Power, Jonathan. "Heinrich Himmler, Hitler’s Deputy–From Boyhood to Chief Murderer of the Jews." In Ending War Crimes, Chasing the War Criminals, pp. 13-18. Brill Nijhoff, 2017.

[11] Grodin, Michael A., Erin L. Miller, and Johnathan I. Kelly. "The Nazi physicians as leaders in eugenics and “euthanasia”: Lessons for today." American journal of public health 108, no. 1 (2018): 53-57.

[12] Kevles, Daniel J. "Eugenics and human rights." Bmj 319, no. 7207 (1999): 435-438.

[13] Kroslak, Daniel. "Nuremberg Laws." The Lawyer Quarterly.-ISSN 8396 (1805): 184-194.

[14] Garner, James Wilford. "Questions of state succession raised by the German annexation of Austria." American Journal of International Law 32, no. 3 (1938): 421-438.

[15] Steinweis, Alan E. Kristallnacht 1938. Harvard University Press, 2009.

[16] Ibid.,

[17] Breitman, Richard. "Plans for the final solution in early 1941." German Studies Review 17, no. 3 (1994): 483-493

This content was originally produced for the SAHO classroom by
Ayabulela Ntwakumba and Thandile Xesi

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