As a trader in the Orange Free State in the 1940s, he organized for the African National Congress (ANC) and served as the national ANC deputy-speaker. He was a member of the Africans' Claims committee. In the late 1950s he left South Africa and settled in Basutoland (now Lesotho), where he became active in the Marematlou Freedom Party.


• Gerhart G.M and Karis T. (ed)(1977). From Protest to challenge: A documentary History of African Politics in South Africa: 1882-1964, Vol.4 Political Profiles 1882 - 1964. Hoover Institution Pres: Stanford University.

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