Chief Mhlabuvelile Hlamandana (Faku), from Bizana District [Eastern Province, now Eastern Cape], refused to cooperate with the state around policies and interventions that he considered unsuitable, and supported the Hill Committee.*

He was accused by state officials of being careless in his duties, disrupting the smooth functioning of the Isikelo Tribal Authority and facilitating activities including arson and public violence in Bizana.  Despite his position, he also seemed to be against the BA (Bantu Affairs).

It was claimed that his mother, Majojo ka Tandabantu Hlamandana, was a particularly strong influence on him and that she was “for all practical purposes the ruler of the tribe.”  Accused of promoting the boycott of white traders, Chief Hlamandana was arrested and spent a month in jail before being released without charges.

The banishment order on his mother and himself was dated 6 July 1960.  Police served the banishment orders on him and his mother, Majojo Ka Tandabantu Hlamandana,four months after the orders (dated 6 July 1960)had been issued,  on 27 November 1960.  They were transported from Isikelo Location into banishment at “ Luckau Farm No. 154,” near Nebo in the Groblersdal district , [Northern] Transvaal, [now Limpopo Province].

 Chief Hlamandana’s partner accompanied him “voluntarily” into banishment.  According to Helen Joseph, the dwelling allocated to Chief Faku “was a great barn”¦lofty, gracious - and empty.”  He was given £2 [R4] and some mealie meal.  One child was born and died in banishment.  The rest of his family remained in Mpondoland.  He was occasionally employed as a daily labourer but was mainly unemployed, during which time he was given £1 [R2] per month and meagre rations.

His banishment order, and that of his mother, was withdrawn on 3 November 1967.

*The Pondoland Revolt was generally referred as “Nonqulwana” after the first Hill Committee.  While this movement clearly involved African National Congress (ANC) supporters, the revolt appears to have been a local initiative in response to local grievances rather than a planned ANC campaign. 

• Contribution by Professor S. Badat, Rhodes University, 2012.  From the book, Forgotten People - Political Banishment under Apartheid by Professor S. Badat
• O'MalleyP. Chapter 2: Regional Profile Eastern Cape from O'Malley ”“ Heart of Hope online.  Available at . Accessed on 25 October 2012

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