Anger at the unilateral imposition of state policies and attempts to appoint pliant pro- Kaizer Matanzima, (chief of the Thembu people) headmen resulted in violence erupting in Cala, [Eastern Province now Eastern Cape], withhut burnings at Emnxe, Eastern Province  in July-August 1960. 

Alex Tikana had been an accused in a 1958 court case in which insults were hurled at the chieftainship and at Matanzima.  He was strongly opposed to BAD (Bantu Affairs Department] and collaborators and was described as ‘bold, confrontational and militant.’  There was speculation that he was involved in the hut burnings of Matanzima loyalists and collaborators but there was no evidence.

Despite this, the Magistrate recommended that: “Alex Tikana should be deported (sic) immediately.  This step is strongly supported by the local police. There is no time to be lost in Tikana’s case, as the available evidence indicates that he is one of the men behind the hut burnings”¦From time to time, ever since my arrival in Cala in June 1957, I have had trouble with Alex Tikana.”  It was alleged that Tikana and his comrades used intimidation and arson to garner support from ‘peace-loving natives,’ and that as a consequence the people in the area were afraid of supporting the BAD’s measures.  It was held that Tikana’s banishment would erode the ‘Congress’ [African National Congress (ANC)] influence in Cala.

An order signed on 15 September 1960 banished Tikana, from Manzimale Location, Xhalanga District, Eastern Province to Frenchdale Native Trust Farm, Mafeking District, [Northern Cape, now North West province]

Tikana left Cala on 28 September 1960.  He was, according to the Magistrate, ‘defiant, insolent and non-repentant,’ proclaiming that ‘he would never accept the headman or a chief.’  He also allegedly told a gathered crowd ‘to see to it that, should the police ever set foot in Emnxe Location, they should be killed,’ and to have warned the Magistrate to advise the headman of Emnxe Location ‘that under no circumstances should he ever set foot at Tikana’s kraal during his absence.’

In 1965, Frenchdale was needed for people to be removed from the ‘swartkolle’ Doornbult and Vergenoeg in Mafeking district, a new order was issued for banishment to Ewbank Trust farm in the Kuruman district Northern Cape.  

His order was withdrawn on 5 March 1973.

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