Born in Cape Town in 1920. In the late 1930s while still at school he became an active member of the Communist Party, speaking at public meetings and selling the weekly newspaper, The Guardian. He studied at the University of Cape Town and became an architect. In 1946 he was charged with sedition, arising from the 1946 miner's strike. In 1948 he became an active opponent of the policies of the National Party. After the passing of the Suppression of Communism Act he became Chairman of the Forum Club, a multi-racial political discussion club.
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